# Dictionary Definition

counting n : the act of counting; "the counting
continued for several hours" [syn: count, numeration, enumeration, reckoning, tally]

# User Contributed Dictionary

## English

### Pronunciation

### Verb

counting- present participle of count

#### Derived terms

# Extensive Definition

Counting sometimes involves numbers other than
one; for example, when counting money, counting out change, when
"counting by twos" (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12…) or when "counting by
fives" (5, 10, 15, 20, 25…).

There is archeological evidence suggesting that
humans have been counting for at least 50,000 years. Counting was
primarily used by ancient cultures to keep track of economic data
such as debts and capital (i.e., accountancy). The
development of counting led to the development of mathematical
notation and numeral
systems.

## Forms

Counting can occur in a variety of forms.Counting can be verbal; that is, speaking every
number out loud (or mentally) to keep track of progress. This is
often used to count objects that are present already, instead of
counting a variety of things over time.

Counting can also be in the form of tally marks,
making a mark for each number and then counting all of the marks
when done tallying. This is useful when counting objects over time,
such as the number of times something occurs during the course of a
day.

Counting can also be in the form of finger
counting, especially when counting small numbers. This is often
used by children to facilitate counting and simple mathematical
operations. The most naive finger-counting uses unary notation (one
finger = one unit) , and is thus limited to counting 10. Other
hand-gesture systems are also in use, for example the Chinese
system by which one can count 10 using only gestures of one hand.
By using finger
binary (base 2 place-value notation), it is possible to keep a
finger count up to 1023 = 210 - 1.

Various devices can also be used to facilitate
counting, such as hand tally counters and abacuses.

## Inclusive counting

Inclusive counting is usually encountered when
counting days in a calendar. Normally when counting 8 days from
Sunday, Monday will be day 1, Tuesday day 2, and the following
Monday will be the eighth day. When counting inclusively, the
Sunday (the start day) will be day 1 and therefore the following
Sunday will be the eighth day. For example, the French word for
fortnight is quinze jours (15 days), and similar words are present
in Greek (δεκαπενθήμερο) and Spanish (quincena). This practice
appears in other calendars as well; in the Roman calendar the nones
(meaning nine) is 8 days before the ides; and in the Christian
calendar Quinquagesima
(meaning 50) is 49 days before Easter Sunday.

The Jewish people also counted inclusively. For
instance, Jesus announced he
would
die and resurrect "on the third day," i.e. two days later.
Scholars most commonly place his crucifixion on a Friday afternoon
and his resurrection on Sunday before sunrise, spanning three
different days but a period of around 36-40 hours.

Musical terminology also uses inclusive counting
of interval
between notes of the standard scale: going up one note is a second
interval, going up two notes is a third interval, etc., and going
up seven notes is an octave.

## Psychology

By age 3, most children acquire the ability to count, and the majority of 3 year olds can count up to 10 objects correctly. Children eventually come to understand the following 5 counting principles:- One-to-one correspondence: Each object must be labeled by a single number word.
- Stable order: The number should always be recited in the same order.
- Cardinality: The number of objects in the set is equal to the last number stated.
- Order irrelevance: Objects can be counted left to right, right to left, or in any order.
- Abstraction: Any set of discrete objects can be counted.

## See also

counting in Catalan: Comptar

counting in Cebuano: Ihap

counting in German: Zählen

counting in French: Compte

counting in Hebrew: מנייה

counting in Dutch: Tellen

counting in Simple English: Counting

counting in Swedish: Räknande

counting in Thai: การนับ

counting in Volapük: Numam

counting in Chinese: 計數

# Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

accounting, assimilating, census, comprising, containing, covering, dactylonomy, embracing, encircling, enclosing, encompassing, enumeration, envisaging, foliation, including, inclusive, incorporating, inventorying, measurement, numbering, numeration, pagination, quantification, quantization, tallying, telling